The 50-seat regional plane story produced by Candair and Umbrella – and preceded, to a lesser extent, by Fokker F.28 scholarship and British space industry BAe-146 – was, in many ways, the story of Long Island MacArthur Airport, because the type was finally Facilitate vendor-centric hub entry service. Representing the reach of the major airlines to smaller and secondary airports, it offered the same speed, blocking times and convenience as the traditional big-line jets, connecting the gap between them and the 19 to 50 passenger turboprops that were too small and too slow for many sectors these.
The need, in large part, was created by the airline's oversight of the U.S. hub and speech route. Carriage and feeding passengers to larger-capacity aircraft, such as America, Continental, Delta and United, have longer, but thin sections operated on By regional airlines carrying the towers' bipartisan code, independent passenger carriers expanded rapidly, mainly because of this new jet, which was the right aircraft at the right time and what became known as the "regional jet revolution."
Not only were regional planes the most efficient way for airlines to connect hundreds, if not thousands of localities, to airport hubs and global airline networks, "according to Bombardier Aerospace (which subsequently purchased Candair)," these innovative aircraft enhanced passenger travel experience and provided airlines Regional Aviation Increase traffic, revenue and greater market share. To further increase traffic growth, the idea was to use the Candair regional aircraft to fly between & # 39; spoken & # 39; cities. Each new spoken city has increased the number of passengers connecting to fly to the airline’s main partner hub. These additional routes provided passengers with small towns additional flight options. "
It certainly took place at Islip Long Island MacArthur Airport.
"There are literally hundreds of markets outside that can't support regular jet services, but seats 30, 50 and 70 can now bring jet comfort and economic service," commented Doug Blissit, once Delta Air Lines vice president. Network Analysis. "The regional planes are a phenomenal economic transformation of the industry. The vast majority of the deployment was to extend the reach of planes with more economical planes."
Beyond the collaborative nature of the genus, he also had a competitive side. This could be seen as a tool that attacked the hubs and talking fortresses of the major airlines, allowing smaller carriers that started out as traditional turboprop passengers to penetrate the cracks in the large armor, forging new point routes that did not need a proper load factor feeder center.
Early regional jet operations:
Perhaps the earliest regional aircraft in the Western world to eliminate Russian motor-housing, the 27-passenger Yakovlev Yak-40 from the discussion, was the Fokker F.28 scholarship.
The popularity of the high-twin, twin-turboprop friendship with 40 F.27 passengers, like a compass needle pointing toward a pure jet completion that offers higher speeds and hence a decrease in blocking times, has resulted in the development of F.28 itself.
Announced in April 1962, it is designed for short space operations, but offers higher seating for 65 in the body of the aircraft large enough for up-to-date five series. Looks like the main line planes, like the British Aircraft Corporation BAC-111 and McDonnell-Douglas DC-9, and it featured a low and extended wing on its leading edge, two rear Rolls Royce mounted RB.183 Spey Turbopans & Junior, fin The back and tail, yet kept it simple by eliminating all the top devices. Unique to its design was a hydraulically-powered hydraulic header and formed the rear end of the fuselage. Expandable to varying degrees and facilitated by steep but slow and controlled drop profiles.
Besides the financial backing granted by the Dutch government, the risk sharing of the program came from short brothers from Belfast, Northern Ireland; HFB and VFW of Germany; And AiResearch, Dowty Rotol and Goodyear.
Three prototypes respectively first flew on May 9, August 3, October 20, 1967, and the first production version, F.28-1000, was delivered to Germany's LTU customer launch on February 24, two years later. As happened in F.27, sales could be counted in single digits, as F.28 was usually the largest type in a small airline fleet.
A stretched version, the F.28-4000, featured a total length of 97.2 feet and a wingspan nearly 12 feet high by 82.3 feet. Driven by two Rolls Royce 555-15H turbopans in 9,850-pound rolls, it had a maximum takeoff weight of 73,000 pounds, cruise speed 530 mph at 21,000 feet and maximum fuel-to-fuel ratio ranging from 1,162 to 2,560 miles. Passengers with five-aust, one-class, six additional, for a total of 85, could carry a 29-inch seat with the addition of a second flush port on each side.
The climb was included in the action at Piedmont's Islip.
Piedmont itself inaugurated its scheduled air link on February 20, 1948 with Flight 41. Departing from Wilmington, NC, at 0700, its DC-3 made the multi-hop trip to Pinhorst, Charlotte, Asheville, Three Cities, Lexington and Cincinnati . Two other aircraft of this type and about 250 workers formed his metal and human spine.
With advanced expansions, especially with route extensions to Atlanta, it initially fed Delta and East flights, and grew significantly until it became an American center in its own right. Perhaps a symbol of prestige was the arrival of the literal and larger image of aviation in New York in 1966.
Earnings went up: $ 1 million in 1965 and almost double that two years later. He established his first focus in Charlotte, NC, and projected his reach to major cities like Boston, Pittsburgh, Tampa, Miami, Dallas / Pater. Worth, and Denver, which exceeds the number of passengers it carried, is the traditional Charlotte stronghold of Eastern Airlines.
Operating 727-100s, 727-200s, and 737-200s – the latest being its short-medium workhorse – it released in the October 1982 system schedule, "We make it easy to reach more than 80 cities."
Hubs were then set up in Baltimore and Dayton, and people from across the 767-200ER eventually reached the West Coast and Europe.
In 1987, Piedmont operated a strong fleet of 177 to about 235 destinations, which carried 23 million passengers, making it a US $ 1.6 billion acquisition.
The capacity, especially of F.28-1000 passengers of 65 passengers, guaranteed frequency at Long Island MacArthur Airport.
Of the five daily departures she sent to her Baltimore center, this morning and evening, with 128 passengers, 737-300 were held; Mid-morning and mid-afternoon were flown with Hanson, 37 Piedmont Regional DHC-8-100 passengers; And the noon sector was dealing with F.28-1000, which allows him to "properly size" his equipment according to the time of day, capacity and demand.
When Piment acquired New York-based Empire Airlines in 1986, along with Syracuse hub and 8.24-passenger F.28-4000, it deployed the type from Islandp to feed its highly-developed Charlotte hub.
Another early regional aircraft was the British Air BAe-146.
The ultimate design response for a feeder or regional aircraft, it has advanced through many iterations, including those of the high-wing DH.123, the twin-turboprop offered by De Havilland, and one low wing with rear-mounted engines until it reaches HS.146 of Hooker Sidley with turbopans of high bypass ratio of ALF-502 Avco. Because they did not produce the necessary push for the predicted aircraft, only the use of four, mounted on the lower wing's rib, can ensure the required performance and range.
Although the official launch of the climb in 1973 seemed promising, the subsequent global recession, rising oil prices and rising development costs made it timed, which ended in October 1974. Nevertheless, the low-key development continued.
After de Havilland and Hawker Sidley were combined into the marvelous British aviation air and conducted its own planning and market review, the government was awarded full-scale program development on July 10, 1978.
The final assembly took place in Hatfield.
Sporting, like the F.28 fraternity, tail-tail and rear petals, an air brake that molds the fuselage into steep approaches, he deviated by having a high wing, even without leading edge devices, and the four turbopans. While its passenger compartment was wide enough for deep seating at six, most carriers opted for five.
BAe-146-100's first flight from Hatfield occurred on September 3, 1981. Subsequently, two tighter, higher-capacity versions followed BAe-146-200 and 300.
The first, which aired Aug. 1, 1982, consisted of 93.10 feet and 86 feet in length with a 15-degree sweepback and Fowler flip-flops with trailing edges. Up to 112 single-class passengers can be accommodated in a 6 to 26-cm lot. Its maximum gross weight was 93,000 pounds and the range, with full cargo, was 1,130 nautical miles.
BAe-146 was inaugurated for his service with Air Wisconsin on June 27, 1983.
The Airways Presidency, founded by Harold J. Private in 1985, and headquartered in Washington, was the only operator of the type in Islip, and maintained a fleet of eight BAE-146-200, in addition to 737-200. Connecting Long Island with its International Dulles Center, he subsequently acted as a code bearer for Continental Express and United Express, respectively, in line with each of its major Washington flights.
Later regional jet operations:
The first-generation regional aircraft took shape as Candair's CRJ (later Bombardia).
In addition to developing entirely new designs, potential low-aircraft aircraft manufacturers had two options: dropping an existing line aircraft, such as the DC-9-10, which would incorporate too much structural weight into its market, or increase aircraft size. Those who fell into the latter category were business jets, though their narrow body of aircraft made them less than ideal for such a commercial application. Because of the CL-600's wide passenger compartment, its own aircraft, which first flew in 1978, Candair was able to choose the latter option.
Initially estimated to incorporate a simple stretch with 24-passenger capacity and designed for the CL-600E, it was first published in 1980, but canceled its plans to continue the version the following year. In 1987, or a year after being purchased by Bombardier, Candair was reexamined with the concept of the small regional jet that led to its launch in 1989.
A more ambitious version than originally thought, it featured a 19.5-foot-high traction achieved through front and rear body plugs, additional emergency exits, some reinforced wings with increased fuel capacity, and two rear-mounted General Electric CF34 turbopes. It was initially disguised as a prototype on May 10, 1991. Following a three-plane flight test program, it received its FAA approval on October 29 of the following year and entered service with its launch customer Lufthansa CityLine. Provide point-to-point service and hub entry service to Western European destinations from Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg and Munich.
In the initial CRJ-100 version, which came out of what one pilot called a "sexy look," a pointed nose, 87.10 feet long, 69.7 feet long, attached to the wing, with a space of 520.4 square meters and dragged to the edges only, two inverters for CF34- 3A1 with a 9,220-pound thrust, turbopan and tailpipe were issued, and fifty passengers with four zones could be accommodated in thin seats in a cabin with a closed overhead storage compartment, kitchen and toilets.
The weight load was 13,500 pounds, gross weight 53,000 pounds, and a range of 1,650 nautical miles.
The successful CRJ-200, powered by CF34-3B1s, offered greater range, lower fuel consumption and increased cruise and altitude speeds.
Both types of sales totaled 1,054.
Headquartered at Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky International Airport, Comair was the first modern Long Island MacArthur regional jet operator.
Beginning with an airline service in 1977, he began his eight-passenger journey in Akron / Canton, Cleveland and Evansville with the eight-piston Piper Navagas engines, and succeeded in replacing them with the 18-passenger TurboProp EMB-110 Bandeirantes.
Joined Delta Connection as a leader in neighboring Cincinnati hubs in 1984, she expanded significantly, soon acquiring equipment from Fairchild Swearingen Metro, Shorts 330, Embraer, EMB-120 Brasilia and Saab 340. Orlando became her second focus.
As the US launch customer for Jetair Regional Jet, it operated 163 of its kind, including 63 CRJ-100ERs, 37 CRJ-100LRs, 37 CRJ-200ERs, and 27 CRJ-700LRs, by 2005.
Delta acquired 20 percent of Kumir's shares in 1996 and its balance three years later.
The type helped inaugurate its service to Islip, providing three round-trip trips in the morning, afternoon and evening in Cincinnati, so travelers could connect to its and Delta's flights. This link opened up the rest of Canada and parts of Canada to Long Island.
Another regional jet operator of MacArthur, which was also a Delta Connection Company, was ASA Atlantic Southeast Airlines.
When inaugurating an independent scheduled service from Atlanta to Columbus, Georgia, with the De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Twin aircraft on June 27, 1979, he advanced through another turboprop, EMB-110, before purchasing a pure BAe -146-200 and CRJ-200 types, which fed Delta's Atlanta coordinator after it negotiated a two-letter marketing agreement of its own. As with Comair, ASA was joined by increasing stock purchases until Delta was wholly owned.
Cincinnati, which arrived in 2002, was its 100th destination and in 2003 it received its 100th regional aircraft. By 2011, it operated 112 CRJ-200ERs, 46 CRJ-700ERs and 10 CRJ-900ERs.
Islip was connected to Atlanta's own hub and Delta with three daily round trips operated by ASA as of August 1, 1999. Comair then served the route.
Another regional jet operator for Islip was Air Wisconsin, which was branded US Airways Express and returned the lost link due to the restrictions of the Washington Reagan National Squad when its incoming plane arriving at 1250 on March 25, 2012, was awarded with a water curtain at the MacArthur ramp.
Departing at 1328, he became the first of two round trips of the CRJ-200 daily. Although the lawmakers received a great deal of approval, it was short-lived.
The equivalent of the regional Candier – if not a competitor – was the Embraer ERJ-145.
Utilizing its power from previously unavailable engines that allowed it to operate in largely untapped markets, it sought to outweigh its higher fuel consumption than traditional turboprops by increasing the daily utilization of its shorter blocking times, along with getting larger passengers.
Unlike Candier's CL-600 business jet, it used EMB-120 Brasilia as the inspirational base, introducing two aircraft body and redesigned wing plugs with an extended lead edge chord, lightweight swivelback, and wings, but replaced its turboprop engines With pure jets wrapped in backpacks. The tail remains. First it is called EMB-145 Amazon.
In the early 1990s, the Allison turbopan GMA-3007, producing 7,100 pounds, was selected with a potential of up to 10,000.
Iterations involving reduced lengths, increased capacity ranges, greater fuel capacity, higher weights and improved performance led to the absolute ERJ-145 that first flew on August 1, 1995. We accommodated 50 single-level passengers, three up-to-date with step-by-step down the cabin front He had a load of 12,755 pounds and a gross weight of 48,501 pounds. It was first delivered to the customer launch of Express Airlines, which operated as Continental Express, the following year, and provided capacity, speed and range to accommodate longer and thinner routes, both for its own and Continental flights.
Continental Airlines is Northeast Ohio's largest airline, with its hubs at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, with more than 250 daily departures to nearly 80 cities, "according to United Airlines Corporation News." With one of the youngest fleets in the United States, Continental and Continental Express offer convenient and high-frequency service from Cleveland Hopkins to major business centers including Boston, New York (Newark Liberty, La Guardia, Kennedy, White Plain, and Islip), Washington (National Reagan, Baltimore-Washington and Dulles), Chicago (OH). And Midway), Houston and Atlanta.
Like other regional airlines, Express Jet itself has been the merged result of several turboprop passenger carriers – including Bar Harbor Airlines from Bangor, Maine; Hainis, Massachusetts, PBA Provincial-Boston Airlines, Massachusetts; Rocky Mountain Airways from Denver, Colorado; And British Airways Target Hot, Indiana, all of which flew on the latter’s operating certificate.
It inaugurated the regional jet service ERJ-145 on September 4, 1998 and eventually became the largest operator of the type of all three variants, including the smaller ERJ-135, 37-passenger and ERJ-140 with passengers.
The three morning, afternoon and evening frequencies, with Islip-Cleveland frequencies carrying "CO" flight numbers, linked Long Island with the rest of the country.
Another regional carrier of McCarthy's Umbrella was American Eagle.
Much like Continental Express, the American Eagle concept that was unveiled at the end of 1984, stemmed from American Airlines' inability to serve economically secondary and tertiary markets with its main airplanes. It grew rapidly, fed its hubs and advanced from the turboprop to pure aircraft equipment. The first officially scheduled U.S. Eagle flight, from Fayetteville, Arkansas to Dallas, occurred on November 1, when one of two Metropolitan Convair 580s, powered by two Alison 501-D13H turboprops of 3,750 kW, touched the southwest corner of America The aircraft, which was converted from a piston-driven piston, CV-240, -340 and 440, was eventually replaced by a sub-340.
The second to join the fold, also that year, was Poughkeepsie, New York-based Command Airways, which operated Beech 99s, DHC-6 Twin Otters, Shorts 330, Shorts 360 and ATR-42.
Simmons, third, deployed Japanese NAMC YS-11, 360 Shorts, ATR-42, and Chicago-Ohar ATR-72, and Wings West, IV, launched C99, Fairchild Swearingen Metro, Jetstream 31s and Saab 340s to West Coast destinations.
Finally, the Puerto Rico-based executive jumped to the pool on September 15, 1986, operating the CASA C-212-200 Aviocars, Shorts 360 and ATR-72s.
From Islip, it operated midnight ERJ-145 to the Chicago-based light, completing the 80s-80s in the morning and evening, replacing the four daily sub-340s, 34 passengers (once flown in Business Express before AMR, Inc.). It and folded it into the American brand Eagle) with an equal number of frequencies ERJ-135 with 37 passengers.
Another Long Island MacArthur American Eagle ERJ-145 operator was Piedmont, which traces its origins to Hanson Airlines.
Founded in 1961 by Richard Anson, aviation pioneer and pilot pilot of the Fairz Jild Child. He planted Roots Sessions as a regular base operator in Hagerstown, Maryland, known as Henson Aviation, and yet initiated his own scheduled service to Washington, DC. 1962 under the name "Passenger Gerstown."
After completing a code sharing agreement with Algiers Airlines five years later and replacing the same carrier's service in Salisbury, Maryland, it expanded to Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, embarked on its million passenger journey in 1977 and purchased its first four-passenger engine, 54 passengers. De Havilland from Canada DHC-7 two years later.
Acquired by Fairmont Airlines in 1983, it was renamed "Henson, the Piedmont Regional Airlines."
The following year, she led the first DHC-8-100 aircraft with 37 passengers and at the end of 1987 she served 38 destinations in ten states as well as the Bahamas.
Following the merger in 1989 with the US, Hanson acted as USAir Express carrier and later also American Airways Express. However, four years later it was changed to a name called Piedmont Airlines to retain its original identity. American Airlines, which acquired Airways in 2013 And re-branded it American Eagle, retaining its philosophy.
Today, Piedmont / American Eagle operates three ERJ-145 frequencies daily, departing from Islap at 0710, 1035, and 1858 to Philadelphia, one of the former US / U.S. Return flights arrive on Long Island land at 1007, 1833 and 2221.
Both ASA Atlantic South & Estair Airlines and also Kumair deployed the larger CRJ-700 to Islip.
As a result of Bombardi's first attempt to offer a higher capacity version to compete more effectively with the Fokker F.70 and Avro International RJ70, both 70 seats, it officially launched the program in January 1997. Based on the original CRJ-200 , היא הציגה גוף גוף רחב יותר באורך כולל של 106.8 רגל; אגף גדול יותר, עם תוחם 76.3 רגל ושטח של 760 מטר מרובע; לוחות קצה מובילים להגברת ההרמה במהירות נמוכה ולהפחתת ריצות ההמראה; 13,790 טורבו-פאן CF34-8C5B1; קומה תחתונה לחדר כניסה להגדלה; חלונות נוסעים מורמים; יכולת מחלקה יחידה של 78; ומשאבים מקסימליים של 18,055 ו 75,000 פאונד ומשקולות משקל ברוטו.
היא טסה לראשונה ב- 27 במאי 1999, והיא נכנסה לשירות עם בריט אייר שנתיים לאחר מכן, ושמרה על דירוג זהה לזה של קודמי הקיבולת הקטנים יותר.
הטווח המורחב שלה CRJ-700ER היה בעל יכולת מייל של 1,504 מילימטר ומהירות שיוט של 448 קשר / 515 קמ"ש / מאך 0.78.
צילומי סילון אזוריים בזמן:
בגלל הביקוש, הצורך להתאים קיבולת, תזמון ובמקרים מסוימים להחליף סוג מטוס אחד בסוג אחר, כל ניסיון לדון בפעילות הסילון האזוריות של שדה תעופה לונג איילנד מקארתור יכול להיעשות רק כתצלומי זמן בזמן.
במהלך החלק האחרון של שנת 1988, למשל, שנחשבת לתקופת הסילון האזורית המוקדמת שלה, הנשיאות איירווייס הפעילה את BAe-146-200 שלה לוושינגטון-דולס, ואילו פיימונטה "בגודל ימין" של מטוסיה כדי לשמור על תדירות, וסגרה את 65 נוסע בצהריים F.28-1000 בין הבוקר והערב 737-300 וחצות הבוקר ואמצע אחר הצהריים הנסון DHC-8-100.
בשנת 1998, אשר יכולה להיחשב לשחר עידן הסילון האזורי של הדור הבא, ראתה את לונג איילנד מחוברת למרכזי אטלנטה וסינסינטי של דלתא, וקליבלנד של קונטיננטל עם 50 מושבי CRJ-100s, CRJ-200s ו- ERJ-145s, בהתאמה מאת Comair, ASA ו- ExpressJet.
מספר היציאות היומיות כלל שלוש Comair / Delta Connection CRJ-100s לסינסינטי, שתי אמריקן Eagle ERJ-145 לשיקגו, שתיים ובהמשך שלוש ExpressJet / Continental Express ERJ-145s לקליבלנד, ושלוש ASA / Delta Connection CRJ-200 ל- אטלנטה.
בחודש הראשון שלה בפעילות סילון אזורית, חברת התעופה האחרונה הובילה 6,980 נוסעים, מה שהפך אותו לדייר השלישי בגודלו בשדה התעופה מבחינת העלייה למטוס.
בדצמבר 1999 נערכו שמונה מתוך 37 טיסות הסילון הטהור היומי, או 19 אחוזים, עם הגזע החדש של מטוסי האזור של קנדאייר ואמבררה. בחודש מרץ 2000, סך הנוסעים הסילוניים האזוריים החודשיים היה 16,210 – כלומר 6,107 שנשאו על ידי ASA, 6,831 על ידי קומאייר, ו -3,212 שנשאו על ידי אקספרס ג'ט.
באוגוסט 2002, אמריקן איגל החליפה את ארבע טיסות ה- Saab 340 שלהן לבוסטון עם ERJ-135, וסיפקה הזנת רכזות של אמריקן איירליינס, ובסתיו שדרגו ASA וקומאייר שתיים או שלוש את תדרי אטלנטה וסינסינטי שלהן לקווי CRJ-700 גדולים יותר.
חנוכת שירות הסילון האזורי האחרון:
המוביל האחרון שנכנס לשוק לונג איילנד עם המטוס האזורי היה עלית איירווייז.
היא הוקמה, כפי שהיא משתקפת בשמה, כדי להציע חווית נסיעות איכותית בשנת 2016, והיא נכנסה לזירה כמובלת אוויר אמריקאית של חלק 121, והעבירה קבוצות ספורט ומנהלים בשירותי שכר מתוכננים וגם על שכר בנתיבי צפון-מזרח לפלורידה עם CRJ אחד -100, חמישה CRJ-200 וחמישה CRJ-700.
שירותי CRJ-700 מוגבלים, פעמיים בשבוע, מאיסליפ לפורטלנד, מיין; חוף מירטל, דרום קרוליינה; ומלבורן, פלורידה, נחנכו ב- 17 ביוני 2016. אך גורמי העומס הנמוכים מהצפוי הובילו אותה להשהות פעמיים, בין 15 בינואר ל -16 בפברואר 2017 ואפריל ויולי אותה שנה, לשקול מחדש את האסטרטגיה שלה.
בעוד שההשעיה השנייה הפכה למצב של 16 חודשים שלא צפויים, היא הופיעה סוף סוף בזירת האירוע ב- 6 בספטמבר 2018, והפעם ניתוב יום חמישי וראשון CRJ-200 למלבורן. טיסה מיועדת 7Q 21, היא יצאה בשעה 0800 והגיעה למצב השמש בשעה 1045. לאחר מפנה של 45 דקות, הוא הוחלף מחדש בשעה 1130 לבמיני, איי בהאמה, והפך לקישור האחד-עצר הראשון של Islip אליו.
"המסלול מתוכנן כך שנוסעים מאיסליפ יוכלו להזמין טיסה למלבורן בלבד או להישאר על הסיפון עם שירות חיבור לבימיני", אומרת רבקה אמרי, מנהלת יחסי ציבור של עלית איירווייס. "זהו האי הבהמי הקרוב ביותר לארה"ב עם קילומטרים של חופים מבודדים, מלונות ארבעה כוכבים, וקזינו Resorts World Bimini and Marina."
טיסת ההחזרה, 7Q 23, יצאה מבמיני בשעה 1330, אך דרשה הכנה מוקדמת של מכס וסיור גבול. לאחר שנחתה במלבורן שעה לאחר מכן היא פעלה כ- 7Q 24, המריאה בשעה 1600 ונגעה במקאורתור בשנת 2045.
גורמי עומס נמוכים גרמו שוב להפסקתם, והשאירו את ERJ-145 של פיידמונט / אמריקן איגל לפילדלפיה כפעילות הסילון האזורית היחידה שנותרה באיסליפ עם שחר 2020.